Will single dose vaccine for COVID-19 be enough?

According to the experts, you must behave as if nothing has changed after the single dose of the vaccine. Thousands of people have died already all over the world. The death count is about 84,767 in UK. However, it is surprising that one of patients have died with coronavirus even after administration of vaccine first dose. On the occasion, the patient has received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Post two days of the hospitalization, the patient is scheduled to receive the second shot. For the vaccine to be effective, requirement of a booster dose has been noticed. Through the booster dose, immune response can be finely tuned.

Function of the booster vaccine

Couple of white blood cells is generally activated after first dose of the vaccine. By the plasma B cells, importance is given on the antibody creation. However, it is a cell type that cannot live within the body for a really long time. Lot of antibody may be seen within the body in few days. However, the number starts to decrease if the second dose is not offered.

T cells are present to detect the pathogen properly and kill it. For the T cells, it is possible to stay within the body for years until the time they have encountered the target. As a result, it may be possible to get immunization from the vaccine for a lifetime. However, the number of the T cells may be very limited without the second dose of the vaccine.

Through the booster dose, it may be possible expose the body antigens again. By the pathogen molecules, immune response can be triggered in two parts. Following to the booster, it is possible to have higher memory cells which may be similar to the number of B cells. Quality of the antibody may improve also.

Post exposure to the second dose of the same vaccine, B cell already present in the body may start to increase further. They may able to create lot more descendants. Spike can be seen in the number of antibodies also.

Second dose can initiate the process of B cell maturation also. Picking an immature B cell with a good receptor, it is generally bonded with a pathogen. The process may be started in the bone marrow from where the white blood cells are created. Later on, they may go towards the spleen to complete the process of development. As a result, numerous B cells can be seen. In addition, improved antibodies can be created from them also.

Reproduction of the memory T cells may happen quickly also. Critical role has been played by these T cells already during the coronavirus pandemic. Some people can be protected as a result from developing serious symptoms of COVID-19.

Effectiveness of the single dose

In order to know about the efficacy of single dose coronavirus vaccine, British Government has decided to administer the second dose after three to four weeks. Some of the guidelines have agreed to lengthen the duration up to 12 weeks. Russia has been also trying out a single dose routine with their Sputnik vaccine. They have named the vaccine Sputnik Light on the occasion.

In case of Pfizer vaccine, efficiency rate after the first dose has been seen about 52%. If you look at the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine then efficacy rate may be in 64.1% and Moderna vaccine offers 80.2% protection after its first dose.

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